Urbanization is a phenomenon that impacts economies, societies, cultures, and the environment. Not only is there a growing level of interest in the rapid growth and shape of urban developments, but also in the linkages that exist between individual cities and between urban and rural areas.
Rural areas are essentially different from metropolitan areas and intrinsically significant and require particular actions and strategies to improve the lives of their residents. Malnutrition, food insecurity, poverty, a lack of proper health and education facilities, a lack of access to other essential infrastructure, and underutilization of labor are many such issues that rural communities deal in a regular basis.
Rural areas face significant difficulties because of their distinct characteristics
These include, among other things, the dispersion of rural populations, topographical features (terrain and landscapes) that act as a barrier to building infrastructure effectively, excessive reliance on the agricultural sector, and ensuring the protection of the environment and natural resources.
The broad parameters that constitute an important aspect of quality of life in analyzing the well-being of people across the degree of urbanization i.e. along cities, towns and semi-dense areas, and rural areas are:
- Income, economic opportunities, and employment
- Educational attainment and schooling
- Health outcomes and access to healthcare
- Access to services and utilities
- Exposure to crime & violence
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